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Advance fee scams, also known as Nigerian Prince scams or 419 frauds, are deceptive schemes where fraudsters trick victims into paying money upfront with the false promise of receiving a much larger sum later. The scammer usually claims to be in a position of power, such as a government official or a wealthy individual, and needs help transferring large sums of money. They reach out to potential victims through email, social media, or phone calls. The victim is promised a significant share of the money in return for their assistance. However, before the transaction can take place, the victim is asked to pay various “fees” or “taxes”. These fees are supposedly for legal costs, bribes, or other expenses needed to facilitate the transfer. Once these fees are paid, the scammer comes up with new fees or disappears altogether. The promised wealth transfer never happens, and the victim is left out of pocket. These scams prey on people’s greed and gullibility and can lead to significant financial loss.

  • Question Everything: If an offer appears excessively beneficial, it is likely not genuine. Be cautious of unsolicited communications that promise large amounts of money.
  • Double-Check the Source: Scammers often impersonate reputable organizations or individuals. Always independently verify the source, and do not rely on the contact details provided in the suspicious communication.
  • Avoid Upfront Payments: Legitimate organizations will not request for fees or taxes to be paid in advance.

Bogus debt scams are a growing concern where fraudsters pose as legitimate debt collectors to trick consumers into paying non-existent debts. These scammers often use personal information obtained through identity theft or credit reports to make their claims seem credible. They may pressure individuals with scare tactics, threats, or emotional manipulation, creating a sense of urgency for immediate payment. A common red flag is the refusal to provide their company name, address, and phone number when asked. Another warning sign is when the debt they are attempting to collect is not recognized by the individual. Legitimate debt collectors are required by law to provide validation information about the debt and the collection agency. If a supposed debt is disputed within 30 days of receiving this information, the collector must cease collection attempts until written verification of the debt is provided. Scammers may also threaten legal consequences such as jail time, which is a violation of consumer rights under the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act. Consumers are advised to verify any unfamiliar debts and report any suspicious activity.

  • Verify the Debt: Always ask for written proof of the debt. Legitimate debt collectors are required by law to provide this.
  • Know Your Rights: Familiarize yourself with the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA), which outlines your rights as a consumer.
  • Check the Source: If you are unsure, contact the original creditor to confirm whether they have sent your debt to collections.
  • Maintain Good Records: Keep track of your debts, payments, and any communication with debt collectors.
  • Be Wary of Immediate Payment Demands: Scammers often create a sense of urgency to pressure you into paying.
  • Consult a Professional: If you are feeling overwhelmed, consider seeking advice from a reputable credit counseling agency.

In the world of business, opportunities abound, but so do employment scams. These scams often masquerade as lucrative job offers or investment prospects, luring individuals with the promise of high returns or excellent salaries for minimal effort. Scammers may employ high-pressure sales tactics, creating a sense of urgency to act quickly or miss out. They often ask for upfront payments or sensitive personal information, leading to financial loss or identity fraud. It is essential to approach every opportunity with a healthy dose of skepticism and conduct thorough due diligence. Genuine businesses are transparent and do not demand money in advance.

  • Research: Conduct thorough research on the company or individual offering the opportunity. Look for reviews, news articles, or any information that can verify their legitimacy.
  • Beware of High Returns: Be skeptical of opportunities promising high returns with little risk or effort. If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is.
  • Avoid Upfront Payments: Legitimate businesses rarely ask for money upfront. Be wary of any opportunity that requires you to pay before you can start earning.
  • Check for Transparency: Genuine businesses are transparent about their operations, financials, and business model. If this information is not readily available or is vague, it is a red flag.
  • Consult with Trusted Advisors: Before making any commitments, consult with trusted advisors such as a lawyer, accountant, or business mentor.

Credit-push scams are where the perpetrator tricks a person or organization into willingly transferring money into a bank account they control. The scammer often uses tactics such as phishing or social engineering to deceive their victims.

In vendor impersonation, the fraudster pretends to be a legitimate vendor or service provider. They may create counterfeit invoices or use spoofed emails that appear to come from the actual vendor. The victim, believing they are paying for a genuine service or product, willingly transfers funds to the account specified in the fraudulent invoice.

In business email compromise, the fraudster gains access to an executive’s email account and uses it to request funds from another employee within the same organization. The employee, believing the request is legitimate, transfers the funds to an account controlled by the fraudster.

In payroll impersonation, the fraudster creates a fake identity and uses it to reroute paychecks into their own account. They may pose as a new hire or even an existing employee and provide banking details that direct the payroll funds to their own account.

This type of fraud is particularly prevalent in the faster payments sector due to its quick transaction times and reliance on digital connections.

  • Be Skeptical: Always question unsolicited requests for your personal or financial information. Just because someone knows your basic details (such as your name and address), it does not mean they are genuine.
  • Double-Check Details: Before making a transaction, double-check the account details and the identity of the person or company you are dealing with.

The Federal Trade Commission has a consumer advice page giving more detailed information on what cryptocurrency is and what are some of the typical scams that have been reported.  You can click the link below to view that information.

These scams are deceptive practices where fraudsters pose as a family member or friend in distress. They typically contact you via phone or message, claiming to be in an urgent situation that requires immediate financial assistance. The scenarios they present can vary widely, from being arrested and needing bail money, to being involved in a car accident, or having trouble returning from a foreign country. These scammers often have some personal information about you or the person they are impersonating, which they may have obtained from social media sites or by hacking emails. They usually involve an “authority figure” like a fake lawyer or police officer to make their story more convincing and intimidating. They emphasize the urgency of the situation and insist that you are the only one who can help. They also ask you to keep the situation a secret, preventing you from verifying their story with others. The preferred methods of payment are usually untraceable, such as wire transfers, gift cards, reloadable cards, or cryptocurrency. If you receive such a call or message, it is important to resist the pressure to send money immediately and verify the situation first. Remember, real family members or friends would never pressure you to make hasty financial decisions.

  • Verify the Caller: If you receive a call or message from someone claiming to be a loved one in distress, try to reach out to them directly through a known contact number or email before taking any action.
  • Do not Share Personal Information: Be cautious about sharing personal information on social media or over the phone, as scammers can use this information to make their story more convincing.
  • Resist Pressure: Scammers often create a sense of urgency to pressure you into making quick decisions. Take your time and do not let anyone rush you into sending money.
  • Consult Others: If you are unsure about a situation, consult with someone you trust before taking any action. Scammers often insist on secrecy, but discussing the situation with others can provide valuable perspective.
  • Secure Your Online Presence: Regularly update your privacy settings on social media and use strong, unique passwords for your accounts to prevent scammers from obtaining personal information.
  • Be Skeptical of Payment Methods: Be wary if the person insists on receiving money through untraceable methods like wire transfers or gift cards. These are red flags for scams.

Fake charity scams are deceptive operations where individuals or groups misrepresent themselves as legitimate charitable organizations to collect donations. These scams can occur through various mediums, including phone calls, emails, and fake websites. The fraudsters behind these schemes often exploit high-profile disasters or tragedies, capitalizing on the public’s desire to help. They make vague and sentimental claims about how donations will be used, often providing no specifics. Some even falsely claim that donations are tax-deductible. In extreme cases, they may guarantee sweepstakes winnings in exchange for a donation, which is illegal. It is important to research charities thoroughly before donating and to be wary of any organization that pressures you into making a donation. Always verify the legitimacy of the charity and consider paying by credit card or check for added security. Remember, there are many genuine charities out there that could benefit from your support.

  • Research the Charity: Before donating, conduct a thorough investigation of the charity. Look for their mission statement, financial records, and concrete evidence of their work.
  • Verify Legitimacy: Use resources like the IRS’s Tax-Exempt Organization Search or websites like GuideStar and Charity Navigator to verify a charity’s tax-exempt status and evaluate its transparency.
  • Beware of High-Pressure Tactics: Legitimate charities will not pressure you to donate immediately. If you are being pressured, it is a red flag.
  • Avoid Cash Donations: If it is a reputable charity, for security and tax purposes, it is best to pay by check or credit card. Avoid wiring money or using gift cards.
  • Check Privacy Policy: Ensure the charity has a clear privacy policy in place and will not sell your information to third parties.
  • Be Wary of Similar Names: Some scams use names that closely resemble those of legitimate organizations to confuse donors.

QR code scams involving free gifts are a growing threat. Scammers are taking advantage of the popularity of QR codes, which are often used for contactless transactions, by substituting legitimate codes with fraudulent ones. These counterfeit codes can redirect users to websites that are designed to harvest personal and financial data. Sometimes, scammers may even contact potential victims directly, offering a free gift card that can be accessed via a QR code. However, this QR code actually leads the user to a malicious website. The FBI has issued warnings about this type of scam and advises individuals to exercise caution when scanning QR codes. They also recommend not downloading apps from a QR code, but instead using the official app store on your phone. If you receive an email claiming a payment failure and requesting completion through a QR code, it is safer to contact the company directly.

  • Verify the Source: Always verify the source of the QR code before scanning. If it is from an unknown source or you received it unexpectedly, it is best to avoid scanning it.
  • Double Check Emails: Be wary of emails claiming payment failures and asking for completion through a QR code. It is safer to contact the company directly.
  • Use Official App Stores: Avoid downloading apps from a QR code. Use your phone’s official app store instead.

Home repair scams are deceptive practices where fraudsters pose as contractors to exploit homeowners. They often approach victims after natural disasters, offering to fix damages or improve energy efficiency. These scammers may pressure homeowners to act quickly, sometimes asking for cash payments or offering dubious financing options. Unfortunately, they either disappear with the money without completing the work or perform substandard repairs that exacerbate the problem. Some even trick homeowners into signing harmful financing agreements that jeopardize their homes. To protect yourself, always seek recommendations, verify licenses and insurance, and obtain written estimates from multiple contractors before starting any home repairs. Be wary of contractors who make unsolicited visits, offer discounts for referrals, or pressure you into immediate decisions. Always insist on written bids and avoid cash payments or wire transfers. Remember, reputable contractors are usually too busy to solicit work door-to-door.

  • Research: Before hiring a contractor, do your homework. Check their credentials, read reviews, and ask for references.
  • Multiple Estimates: Always get at least three estimates for any repair work. This will give you a sense of the average cost and help you avoid overpriced offers.
  • Written Contracts: Insist on a written contract that details the scope of work, materials to be used, and a timeline for completion. Never sign a blank or incomplete contract.
  • Payment Schedule: Avoid contractors who demand full payment upfront. A standard practice is to pay a portion upfront, some halfway through, and the remainder upon satisfactory completion of the job.
  • Avoid Door-to-Door Solicitors: Be wary of contractors who solicit business door-to-door, especially those who offer deals using “leftover materials” from another job.

These are deceptive practices where fraudsters impersonate IRS or other government officials to steal personal information and money. They often initiate contact through calls, texts, or emails, sometimes even manipulating caller ID to appear legitimate. The scammers may claim you owe money to the IRS or there is an issue with your Social Security account. They may threaten legal action or promise increased benefits to create a sense of urgency. It is important to note that government agencies usually start communication via letter, not through unsolicited calls or messages. If you receive such a contact, it is likely a scam. Never send money, gift cards, or share personal information with these callers. If in doubt, hang up and contact the agency directly using a known, correct number.

  • Be Skeptical: Government agencies like the IRS rarely initiate contact via phone, email, or text. They usually communicate through mail.
  • Do not Share Personal Information: Never provide personal or financial information to unsolicited callers or emailers.
  • Verify Caller ID: Scammers can spoof caller ID to appear legitimate. If you are unsure, hang up and call the agency directly using a verified number.
  • Ignore Threats: Real government officials will not threaten you with immediate arrest or demand payment through specific methods like gift cards or wire transfers.
  • Do not Click on Links: Be wary of clicking on links in unsolicited emails or messages as they may lead to fraudulent sites.

One-time password (OTP) bot scams are a sophisticated form of cybercrime that exploit the security measures put in place to protect online transactions. These scams involve the use of bots, or automated programs, to deceive users into revealing their OTPs. OTPs are typically used as an additional layer of security during online transactions. The scam begins when the attacker, who already has the victim’s login details, triggers an automated call or message to the victim. The message warns the victim of suspicious activity on their account and prompts them to enter an OTP to verify their identity. The OTP is then captured by the bot and relayed back to the attacker. Some of these scams operate through popular instant messaging platforms and are surprisingly user-friendly. They have proven to be effective in obtaining OTPs, particularly when the attacker has access to the victim’s personal information. The prevalence of this type of scam has increased recently, underscoring the need for users to be cautious when sharing sensitive information.

  • Never share your OTP: OTPs are meant to be confidential. If you receive a call or message asking for your OTP, do not share it.
  • Verify the source: If you receive an unexpected request for an OTP, contact the company directly using a trusted number or email to verify the request.
  • Be cautious of unsolicited communications: Be wary of unexpected emails, calls, or messages asking for personal information or OTPs.

These are fraudulent schemes that prey on the victim’s trust. In these scams, the fraudster typically sends a fake check to the victim, often for an amount greater than what they owe. The scammer then asks the victim to deposit the check and return the excess funds. These scams often involve online transactions, such as selling goods or services. The checks used in these scams can look very real, even to bank employees, making them difficult to spot. It can take weeks for a bank to identify a check as fake. By that time, the victim may have already sent the excess funds back to the scammer. These scams are becoming increasingly common due to advancements in printing technology that make it easier to create authentic-looking checks. To avoid falling victim to these scams, it is important to be wary of any transactions that involve overpayment and requests for refunds. Always verify the legitimacy of a check before sending any money.

  • Verify before you trust: Always verify the authenticity of a cashier’s check with the issuing bank, not just your bank. Remember, it can take weeks for a fake check to be identified.
  • Be wary of overpayments: If someone overpays you and asks for the excess to be returned, it is likely a scam. A legitimate buyer will not overpay and ask for money back.
  • Secure transactions: Use secure and traceable transaction methods when selling goods or services online. Avoid accepting checks, especially from individuals you do not know personally.

Phishing is a deceptive method used by cybercriminals to trick individuals into revealing sensitive information, such as passwords and credit card numbers. It often involves the use of seemingly legitimate emails, websites, or messages that mimic well-known organizations. The goal is to lure the recipient into clicking a link or opening an attachment, which can lead to the installation of malware or the theft of personal data. Phishing attacks can be highly sophisticated, often using social engineering techniques to appear more convincing. They pose a significant threat to personal and organizational security. It is crucial to stay vigilant, verify the source of communications, and never share sensitive information without confirming the legitimacy of the request.

  • Be skeptical of unsolicited communications: Phishing attacks often start with unexpected emails or messages. If you did not expect it, verify it.
  • Check the source: Hover over links to see the actual URL before clicking. Be wary of misspelled domains or unfamiliar email addresses.
  • Do not share sensitive information: Legitimate organizations will never ask for sensitive information via email or text message.

Romance scams are deceptive practices that exploit individuals seeking companionship or love. Scammers create fake profiles on dating sites or social media platforms, often using stolen photos to appear genuine. They build trust over time, communicating frequently and expressing affection. The scammer then concocts a crisis, such as a medical emergency or travel mishap, and requests financial assistance. Victims, believing they are helping their romantic partner, send money. However, the scammer disappears once the funds are received. These scams can cause significant emotional distress and financial loss for victims. It is important to be vigilant online, verify information independently, and never send money to someone you have not met in person.

  • Research: Conduct independent research on the person you have met online. Use search engines or background-checking sites to verify their details.
  • Verify Images: Use reverse image search services to check if the person’s photo is stolen or used elsewhere.
  • Slow Down: Scammers often try to move fast to make you feel comfortable. Take your time and ask questions.
  • Never Send Money: No matter how compelling the story, never send money or gifts to someone you have not met in person.
  • Consult Friends & Family: Share your online interactions with trusted friends or family members. They can provide a fresh perspective on your situation.

Shopping spree scams, also known as Secret Shopper or Mystery Shopper scams, are fraudulent activities that prey on consumers’ love for free or heavily discounted shopping. These scams often appear on social media platforms, posing as giveaways from popular brands. They entice users with images of overflowing shopping carts and promises of extravagant prizes. The catch is that users are asked to share sensitive personal information or download harmful software. In some cases, victims are duped into sending money to cover non-existent fees, only to find out the checks they received are counterfeit. While there are legitimate mystery shopper programs, they typically only offer reimbursement and a small payment, not large cash prizes. It is crucial to thoroughly investigate any company offering such opportunities and look for scam reports. Avoid sharing personal details unless you are certain of the entity’s authenticity. Be skeptical of any job that asks for money upfront.

  • Research: Before participating in any online giveaway or shopping spree, do your homework. Look up the company or brand hosting the event and verify its legitimacy.
  • Be Skeptical of Upfront Payments: Legitimate mystery shopping opportunities rarely require you to pay upfront. If you are asked to do so, it is likely a scam.
  • Ignore Unsolicited Offers: If you did not enter a contest or sign up for a giveaway, ignore any unsolicited winnings or offers.

Smishing scams, a blend of “SMS” and “phishing”, are a type of cybercrime where fraudsters send deceptive text messages to trick individuals into revealing private information. These scams often impersonate trusted organizations or government bodies to convince victims to share sensitive data. The messages may appear to come from familiar sources like banks, mobile providers, or services like Netflix or PayPal, and often convey a sense of urgency. They might claim that your account has expired or been locked, and you need to provide personal information or click on a link to reactivate it. This allows the scammers to steal your money, identity, or infect your device with malware. Common smishing scams include bogus bank fraud warnings and fake delivery-related text messages. A scam text might also say you have won a lottery prize or offer a break on student loan debt. To protect yourself from smishing, never click links, reply to text messages, or call numbers you do not recognize.

  1. Be skeptical: If you receive an unexpected text message asking for personal information or urging you to take immediate action, be wary.
  2. Do not click on links: Scammers often include links in their messages that lead to fraudulent websites designed to steal your information.
  3. Verify the sender: If a message claims to be from a company or organization you do business with, contact them directly using a number or email you know is legitimate to confirm the message.

Social engineering is a tactic that exploits human psychology to bypass security systems. It is a non-technical strategy used by cybercriminals to manipulate individuals into revealing confidential information. The technique is based on the principle that humans are the weakest link in any security system. Attackers often pose as trusted entities to deceive their victims into divulging sensitive data or performing actions that compromise security. They may use various tactics, including fear, urgency, or the promise of rewards. The stages of a social engineering attack typically include research, relationship building, exploitation, and execution. Despite advancements in technology, social engineering remains a significant threat due to its reliance on human fallibility. Awareness and education are key in defending against these attacks. Always verify the source and be wary of unsolicited requests for information. Remember, vigilance is your best defense against social engineering.

Tech support scams are a widespread issue where fraudsters use various tactics to deceive people. They often pose as computer technicians from reputable companies, claiming to have detected a problem with your computer. These scammers may contact you directly via phone calls or use pop-up warnings and online ads to get your attention. They might even manipulate caller ID to appear legitimate or lock your browser with persistent pop-up messages. The goal is to convince you that your device or software has a non-existent problem that needs immediate fixing. If you fall for the scam, they will ask for payment for their “services,” often in hard-to-trace ways like cryptocurrency or gift cards. Worse, if they gain remote access to your device, they can install malware or steal personal information. Remember, real tech companies will not contact you out of the blue about a problem, and genuine error messages will not ask you to call a number. Always keep your computer secure and only download software from trusted sources. If you suspect a scam, hang up the phone or close the pop-up, and seek help from a trusted individual or company.

  • Unsolicited Contact: Genuine tech companies usually do not make unsolicited calls or send emails about an issue with your computer. Be skeptical of such communications.
  • Remote Access: Never allow someone who contacted you unexpectedly to remotely access your computer. They could install harmful software or steal your data.
  • Payment Requests: Scammers often ask for payment in untraceable methods like gift cards or wire transfers. Legitimate companies will not ask for payment in these forms.
  • Caller ID Spoofing: Scammers can make it appear as if they are calling from a trusted number. Do not trust caller ID alone.
  • Pop-up Warnings: Real tech companies will not ask you to call a phone number or click a link through a pop-up warning on your computer.
  • Trusted Sources: If you need help with your computer, reach out to a trusted individual or company.
  • Official Websites: Only download software from official websites or trusted sources to avoid malicious software.

Vishing, a blend of “voice” and “phishing,” is a type of scam that uses phone calls to trick individuals into revealing personal and financial information. Scammers often impersonate trusted entities such as banks, law enforcement, or government agencies. They may claim your account has been compromised or offer to help you install software, which is likely malware. The goal of these scams is to steal identities or money. Scammers can make hundreds of calls at once using Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology and can even spoof caller IDs to appear as a trusted source. Common vishing scams include claims of compromised bank or credit card accounts, unsolicited loan or investment offers, and Medicare or Social Security scams.

  1. Be skeptical of unexpected calls: If you receive an unsolicited call asking for personal or financial information, be wary. Legitimate organizations typically don’t ask for sensitive data over the phone.
  2. Do not trust caller ID: Scammers can spoof caller IDs to appear as a trusted source. If you’re unsure, hang up and call the organization directly using a verified number.
  3. Do not be pressured: Scammers often create a sense of urgency to get you to reveal information quickly. Take your time and verify the caller’s identity before sharing any details.


  • Be Skeptical: If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is. Always question the legitimacy of any unsolicited offers or opportunities.
  • Guard Your Personal Information: Never share sensitive information like your social security number, bank account details, or credit card numbers unless you are sure of the recipient’s identity and trustworthiness.
  • Verify Before You Trust: Always double-check the source of any emails, calls, or messages you receive. Scammers often pretend to be someone you trust.
  • Secure Your Devices: Keep your computer, smartphone, and other devices updated with the latest security patches and anti-virus software.
  • Beware of Pressure Tactics: Scammers often create a sense of urgency to get you to act quickly. Take your time and do not rush into anything.
  • Do Your Research: Before making any purchases or investments, do thorough research about the company or individual involved.
  • Be Cautious with Payments: Avoid wire transfers or gift cards as payment methods. They are often used by scammers because they are hard to trace.
  • Protect Your Passwords: Use strong, unique passwords for all your accounts.
  • Watch Out for Red Flags: Poor grammar, misspellings, generic greetings, and unofficial email addresses can all be signs of a scam.
  • Report Suspicious Activity: If you suspect you have been targeted by a scammer, report it to your local law enforcement agency and other appropriate entities.
  • Monitor Your Accounts: Regularly check your bank and credit card statements for any suspicious activity.
  • Do not Click on Unknown Links: Scammers often use links in emails or text messages to direct you to fraudulent websites. Always verify the source before clicking.
  • Be Wary of Free Offers: Scammers may lure you with free gifts or offers and then ask for your personal information.
  • Educate Yourself About Common Scams: Knowledge is power. The more you know about the types of scams that exist, the better you can avoid them.
  • Consult with Trusted Individuals: If you are unsure about an offer or request, consult with a trusted friend, family member, or professional advisor.
  • Use Two-Factor Authentication: Enable two-factor authentication on your accounts for an extra layer of security.
  • Do not Share Personal Details Over the Phone: Scammers may call pretending to be from a trusted organization. Never share personal details over the phone unless you initiated the call.
  • Be Careful with Public Wi-Fi: Public Wi-Fi networks can be less secure, making it easier for scammers to intercept your information. Avoid accessing sensitive information when connected to public Wi-Fi. If necessary, use a VPN service.
  • Delete Unsolicited Emails: If you receive an email from an unknown source, it is best to delete it without opening.
  • Use Secure Payment Methods: If you must make a payment for legitimate reasons, use secure methods like credit cards that offer fraud protection.
  • Trust Your Instincts: If something feels off, it probably is. Trust your gut feeling when dealing with potential scams.